4 Things You Should Know About Tuberculosis

This article highlight how the Tuberculosis spread, its signs and symptoms, its classification and why Its common in People with AIDS.


Tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous diseases on the planet. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tubercle bacilli mainly affect the lungs, causing Lung tuberculosis ( Pulmonary Tuberculosis). However, in some cases, other parts of the body may also be affected, leading to "Extra Pulmonary tuberculosis." Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB disease. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. As a result, you must be aware of the indicators that you may be infected with Tuberculosis, the classification of Tuberculosis, and other important things which you must know about this dangerous infection called Tuberculosis. The reason for this is that it is a viral disease that advances or becomes more serious the longer it is left untreated. In this piece, we'll look at some things you should know about Tuberculosis :


1. How Does Tuberculosis Spread:

TB germs usually spread through the air. When a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis cough, sneezes, or talks, he throws TB germs into the air in the form of tiny droplets. These tiny droplets, when inhaled by another person, may spread TB. When patients with tuberculosis begin taking effective treatment, they stop spreading the germs within a few weeks. , But unless they take the treatment regularly and complete it, they are likely to develop more dangerous forms of tuberculosis, known as Drugs Resistant Tuberculosis, which they can then spread to others. 

To a large degree, a person’s risk of becoming infected with TB bacteria during exposure to an infectious case depends on the concentration of TB bacteria in the air he/she breathes. This concentration is influenced by: 

• How infectious the case is. 

• The degree of air circulation and ventilation. 

• How close (physical proximity) the person is to the infectious case.

• Whether the person is appropriately protected against inhaling TB bacteria  (e.g., wearing a fit-checked, disposable N95 respirator).

Not everyone who is infected with TB bacilli gets TB. If the infected person has good immunity, the disease may not develop. However, if their immunity is weak (e.g., due to malnutrition, HIV infection), then TB can develop soon after infection.


2. Signs And Symptoms Of Tuberculosis:

There are four major Signs of Tuberculosis

* Cough for the duration of 2 weeks or more (the commonest symptom of pulmonary TB) with the production of sputum

* Weight Loss

* Night Sweat

* Sleeplessness

Symptoms Of Tuberculosis:

*Chest pain

* High Fever 

*Loss of Appetite.

3. Classifications Of Tuberculosis:

A. Classification of TB based on Anatomical site of infection.

1. Pulmonary Tuberculosis

2. Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis

The type of tuberculosis is defined by the site of the disease in the body. 80 % of tuberculosis occurs in the lungs and is called pulmonary TB. The occurrence of TB on sites other than the lungs is called "Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis."

 B. Classification of Tuberculosis on the basis of activeness of the Bacilli:

1. Latent TB

2 .Active TB 

 Latent TB is the period when the TB Bacilli is present in the body system but not causing tuberculosis disease.

Active TB is the period where the TB Bacilli is causing TB infection in the body system.

 C. Classification of TB based on diagnosis/drug susceptibility: 

1. Drug Susceptible Tuberculosis (DSTB)

2. Drug Resistance Tuberculosis (DRTB)

DSTB: this is the type of TB treated for a period of 6months with RHZE (Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol). It means that all of the TB drugs will be effective when taken properly.

DRTB: This is the type of TB that has resisted one or two drugs from the first line regimen treatment, and it is treated for 9-12months.

4. Tuberculosis is so Common in People with AIDS:

The ability of a person to restrict Tuberculosis Infection depends on his cellular immunity. Because HIV weakens cellular immunity, TB bacilli can grow more easily, and tuberculosis disease develops. HIV infection can therefore cause Latent Tuberculosis infection to progress to Tuberculosis Disease. Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among people with HIV, resulting in 374,000 TB-related death in 2016.

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