Comparative Study Of Phytochemical Properties Of Some Bio-material (african Yam Bean, Pigeon Pea, Pawpaw Leaf Powder, Moringa Seed And Pawpaw Seed)

ABSTRACT The study was carried out to compare the phytochemical properties of Africa yam bean, pigeon pea, moringa seed, pawpaw leaf and pawpaw seed powder and the Significance of the phytochemicals in respect to the treatment of diseases were discussed. Phytochemicals were qualitatively analyzed from the plants ethanol extracts and the practical were done in Bro. Mike researchers Lab. Umuerim Extension Umudibia Nekede and the Standard phytochemical analysis methods were adopted. Preliminary screening of the Africa yam bean, pigeon pea, moringa seed, Pawpaw leaf and pawpaw seed powder revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and in all the plants ethanol extracts. Africa yam bean contained all the phytochemicals except tannin, while there was absence of flavonoid, and Glycoside in pigeon pea. Tannins were also absent in the pawpaw seed and pawpaw seed extracts. There was also the absence of steroid and ncardiac glycosides in moringa. The quantitative analysis of the six selected phytochemicals revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean values of alkaloids and flavonoids contents of African yam bean plants. However, at Africa yam bean had the highest Alkaloids content while moringa seed had the highest flavonoids content. The Pawpaw leaf contained the highest tannins and Saponins was found highest in pawpaw leaf and pawpaw seed. Finally, the results justified the medicinal potentials of these plants in the treatment of diseases.

INTRODUCTION

The comparative method is often used in the early stages of the development of a branch of science. It can help their search to ascend from the initial level of exploratory case studies to a more advanced level of general theoretical model invariances, such as causality or evolution. In a comparative study, you are examining two or more cases of specimens, biomaterials event. On the basis of the target of your study, you have to decide which are the interesting aspects, properties, or attributes that you will have to note and record for each of the cases.[1] The final goal of the research is usually to remove the systematic structure that is true not only for were studies but for the entire group where the cases came from. In other words, the goal is to generalize the finding.[2]

Phytochemicals (Phyto means plant) are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants. These compounds are responsible for color and other organoleptic properties. They have antioxidants, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and pain-relieving properties. SalicinTexol, etc. Antioxidants are chemical compounds are a substance that inhibit oxidation or that retards deterioration by oxidation, especially of fat, oils, and foods. Some examples of antioxidants are vitamins A, C, and E, β-carotene, enzymes catalase, superoxide, dismutase, and various peroxidases. Antimicrobials are agents that kill microorganisms or suppress their multiplication or growth, e.g., penicillin (Natural), Sulphonamides, nitroglycerine, etc. Antimicrobial alagents are used to treat infectious diseases. [3,4,5]

This work is therefore focused on the evaluation and comparison of phytochemical contents of underutilized edible and non-edible. The emergence and re-emergence of diseases have left researchers with no Option but to focus the spotlight on the discovery of bioactive metabolites from medicinal plants to complement synthetic orthodox drugs in the fight against diseases caused by infectious agents. The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has been in practice since ancient times in different parts of the world. Plants have the major advantage of still being the most effective and cheaper alternative sources of drugs [6,7]

A biomaterial is essentially a material that is used and adapted for a medical application. Biomaterials can have a benign function, such as being used for a heart valve, or maybe bioactive; used for a more interactive purpose such as hydroxy‐apatite coated hip implants (the Furlong Hip, by Joint Replacement instrument at Ltd, Sheffield is one such example – such implants are lasting upwards of twenty years). Biomaterials are also used every day in dental applications, surgery, and drug delivery. While a definition for the term 'biomaterial' has been difficult to formulate, more widely accepted working definitions, include: "A biomaterial is any material, natural or man‐made, that comprises whole or part of a living structure or biomedical device which performs, augments, or replaces a natural function. African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is an edible, underutilized Grain legume widely cultivated in Africa that is used for man and animal nutrition. Like most grain legumes cultivated in Africa, the African yam bean is rich in prate in, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, and minerals [8,9]. The protein is made up of over essential amino acids, with lysine and Lucien being predominant. It is also rich in antioxidant sand-free-radical scavengers. In spite of its composition, it has a low consumption rate. This is mainly due to its long cooking time, about 145min. [10]

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a rich source of protein for animal and human consumption. It also supplies a significant amount of minerals and vitamins. It is among the dry leguminous cultivated for food in Nigeria. It is also an important food legume in Africa and South–East Asia (11, 12).

Carica papaya Linnaeus (pawpaw leaf) belongs to the family of Caricaceae. Papaya is not a tree but an herbaceous succulent plant that Posses self-supporting stems. [13] It is a large perennial Herb with a rapid growth rate. The plants are usually short-lived but can produce fruit for more than 20 years. The papaya has a rather complicated Means of reproduction. Carica papaya leaf tea or extract has a reputation as a tumors-destroying agent [14]. Fresh, green pawpaw leaf is an antiseptic, whilst the brown, dried pawpaw leaf is the best as a Tonic and blood purifier.[15].

PAWPAW SEED

Carica papaya is known by many other common names such as papaya, papaw, pawpaw, chichpu, mamao, and melon tree. It may cultivate for its young leaves, shoots, and fruits, which are cooked as a vegetable, or for its ripe fruit, which is well known as a popular beverage. Earlier, it was reported that papaya had a positive effect on bacteria in factions. It was found that the treatment of wounds with Carica papaya improved the efficiency of phagocytic cells that destroy bacteria. In vitro studies conducted on extracts from the skin, flesh, and seeds of both ripe and unripe Carica papaya gave antibacterial activities against various microorganisms including Staphylococcus aurous, Bacillus subtilize, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus Vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella Flexner. Papa in, which is the main enzyme found in Carica papaya, is recognized as an effective natural medicine in controlling both edema and inflammation associated with surgical operations. It also produced therapeutic effects in patients with inflammatory disorders of the intestine, liver, and eye. An aqueous extract of Carica papaya was also examined for its effect on the growth of various tumor Cell lines and on human lymphocytes and has shown significant positive results. The seeds and the pulp of Carica papaya contain benzyl glucosinolate, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to produce benzyl isothiocyanate. [16,17,18]

MORINGA OLEIFERA

Is the most widespread species of the plant family Moringaceae? It is a rapidly growing tree native to the sub-Himalayan regions of northwest India and indigenous to many parts of Africa, South America, and Asia. Typically reaching a height of 3-4metres, flowering, and Fruiting in one year from a 0.3metre seedling even in poor quality soil [19, 20]. It is known by different names around the world [21]; for example, in India, "Drumstick" or "Horseradish" tree. The tree produces large seed pods, which can either be harvested when green for food or left to dry. The dried seeds can be crushed to produce high-quality vegetable oil, and the resulting press cake mixed with water and strained to form a coagulant for water treatment [22, 23]

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